Hypophysis is often called the lower appendage of the brain. Hypophysis consists of:
• The anterior lobe (adenohypophysis).
• The posterior lobe (neurohypophysis).
Anterior lobe produces a group of tropic hormones:
• Somatotropin (STH), regulates growth and development of body.
•Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin), stimulates the function of the adrenal cortex.
• Thyrotropic hormone (TTH, or thyrotropin), which stimulates the thyroid gland.
• Gonadotropic hormones (GTH - is - follicle stimulating gonadotropin (FSG) and luteinizing gonadotropin - LSG), that stimulate the function of sexual hormones.
It affects the growth and physical development
It stimulates the activity of osteoblasts, stimulates bone mineralization.
Increases the content of plasma glucose.
It stimulates the formation of the corpus luteum and production of progesterone in them. Production of somatotropin is regulated by the hypothalamus (somatoliberin and somatostatin).
It affects the growth of the mammary glands and milk production.
Increases the reabsorption of sodium and water in the kidneys.
Production of Prolactin is regulated by the hypothalamus (prolaсtoliberin and prolaсtostatin).
• It stimulates the production of glucocorticoids in the bundle area of the cortex of the adrenal glands.
• It stimulates lipolysis.
• Increases pigmentation.
• Accelerates steroidogenesis and enhances the biosynthesis of proteins and nucleic acids.
Generation of corticotropin is regulated by the hypothalamus (corticoliberin)
It stimulates the production in the thyroid gland of thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Generation of thyroid-stimulating hormone is regulated by the hypothalamus (thyreoliberin)
In neurohypophysis occurs depositing of oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin). Hormones of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland are the product of neurosecretion in hypothalamus and diencephalon:
Vasopressin (or ADH, or antidiuretic hormone) has an effect on the reabsorption of water (reabsorption) in the renal tubules. In large doses, it causes narrowing of arterioles.
Oxytocine It enhances smooth muscle contraction of blood vessels and the uterus, it affects the psycho-emotional state of men and women, causing more favorable disposition towards people.
Prolactin regulates the secretion of the mammary glands.